During the Evaluation phase, it is up to you to determine how well your instructional objectives were met, whether or not your materials allowed students to meet those objectives and whether or not your assessment accurately measured students' mastery of the objectives. Even though Evaluation is the last phase of ADDIE, it actually occurs on an ongoing basis. It is easy to confuse assessment with evaluation – assessment is a part of evaluation. Assessment is used by the instructor to measure whether or not learners achieved the learning objectives (tests, essays, portfolios, CATs, group projects, etc.). Evaluation is a measurement of how well the instruction you designed and delivered enabled the learners to meet the objectives.
Evaluation comes in two forms: formative and summative. Formative evaluation occurs during instruction – it allows you to see whether your students are "getting it." Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) are effective measures of formative evaluation. Formative evaluation allows to you change your instructional strategy mid-stream to better meet student needs. Summative evaluation occurs at the end of instruction – it allows you to see whether or not students met the learning objectives for an entire unit, course or program. Summative evaluation looks at the outcome of the instruction (after it has already taken place) and its efficiency (Source: Paula Connors).
(Source: Amy MacPherson)
Feedback is important in any relationship. Immediate feedback between teachers and learners has been shown to increase retention of course information and therefore greater mastery of course objectives. Feedback can come from the instructor in a variety of forms: grades, written comments on students' work, and interactions in class. Teachers also get feedback from their students. This feedback comes in many forms, including their responses to formative evaluations, their comments in class, and how well they perform on assessments (if everyone gets question 6 wrong, it could be that it is a bad question or it could mean that the students did not grasp that concept).
One way to stay on top of what is happening in your class is to use CATs. CATs are useful because they provide an instructor with timely information about how the class is doing. Here are some common CATs:
Before introducing a new concept consider what the students may already know about it. Prepare two or three open-ended questions, a handful of short-answer questions, or ten to twenty multiple-choice questions that will probe the students' existing knowledge of that concept, subject, or topic. (Make a point of announcing that these Background Knowledge Probes are not tests or quizzes and will not be graded.) Encourage students to give thoughtful answers that will help you make effective instructional decisions. At the next class meeting, or as soon as possible, let students know the results, and tell them how that information will affect what you do as the teacher and how it should affect what they do as learners.
To use the Minute Paper, stop the class two or three minutes early and asks students to respond briefly to some variation on the following two questions: "What was the most important thing you learned during this class?" and "What important question remains unanswered?" Students write their responses on index cards or half-sheets of scrap paper and hand them in. Plan to set aside five to ten minutes of your next class to discuss the results.
The technique consists of asking students to jot down a quick response to one question: "What was the muddiest point in ......?" The focus of the Muddiest Point assessment might be the entire class session, one self-contained segment, a discussion, a presentation, a homework assignment, a play, or a film. Plan to set aside five to ten minutes of your next class to discuss the results.
This simple technique challenges students to answer the questions "Who does what to whom, when, where, how, and why?" (represented by the letters WDWWWWHW) about a given topic, and then to synthesize those answers into a simple informative, grammatical, and long summary sentence.
(Source: Paula Connors)
Regardless of the type of evaluation used, it is always necessary to revise your instructional strategy and materials as necessary based upon the results of the evaluation measures. Evaluation is an important component of ADDIE and should not be skipped over – why make the same mistakes twice? If anything is hindering your students' learning, you have a chance to address it.