Instructional Systems Design is the systematic process of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating solutions to instructional problems. The goal of Instructional Design (ID) is to enhance learning through the use of strategies and techniques drawn from the practical application of educational research and learning theory (source: http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/whatisid.html). ID is planning for learning to occur to ensure student success: nothing is overlooked, there is no guesswork, and all instruction stays on track with the objectives. ID is always about the learner and learner outcomes, not about the instructor. ID is used in academia, business and industry. Our focus will be on using ID to design and develop instructional materials for the classroom.
An instructional designer (this means you as a teacher too!) must do the following:
(Source: Paula Connors)
One instructional design model used to address these three areas is known as the ADDIE model – it provides a step-by-step process used to design, create and implement instructional materials. From start to finish, ADDIE helps an instructor answer the questions "What do my students need to learn?" and "How do I know they learned it?"
The phases of ADDIE are Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation.
Analysis – Conduct a leaner analysis: the learners' incoming knowledge, characteristics and skills are analyzed…what do your students already know? What is the gap between what they know and what you want them to know? Conduct a task analysis: what is it you want the learners to be able to do?
Design – Write learning objectives, determine learning activities, choose instructional strategies, methods and media, and create corresponding assessments.
Development – Select and/or create instructional materials (print-based, computer-based, presentations, audio, videos, etc.).
Implementation – Facilitate and implement the instruction of the materials using the instructional strategies chosen in the Design phase and the materials created in the Development phase.
Evaluation – Conduct on-going assessment (formative and summative) and revise objectives and instruction as necessary.
The ADDIE model of instructional design is designed to take into account learners' incoming knowledge and skills and to ensure that instructional alignment occurs. Instructional alignment is when the course objectives, assessment measures and instructional strategies all match. As the instructor, you must be mindful of each objective, how you will measure students' mastery of the objective (test/assessment) and how you can provide students with opportunities to master the objective (instruction).
(Source: Amy MacPherson)